Aug 22 2011

Our Current Weak Recovery Fits a 200-Year-Old Pattern

Published by at 1:57 am under Wave Guide 1: Economic Growth

Our current lingering recession/weak recovery — whichever you believe — is a typical feature, over the last 200+ years, of the decade just preceding transformative, twice-per-century 1960s-style booms called Maslow Windows.

A transformative 1960s-style decade, complete with a Camelot-like zeitgeist, is expected to emerge by mid-decade. President Kennedy (right) is with Dr. Wernher von Braun (center) at Cape Canaveral in November, 1963,

The 1960s Apollo Maslow Window — named for the outstanding great exploration (or macro-engineering project) of its time — did not experience a financial Panic/Great Recession probably because of the post-WW II expansion and financial reforms dating back to the Great Depression.

However, the Panic of 2008 suggests that we have returned to the 200+ year-old pattern of financial Panic/Great Recession pairs followed by a JFK-style economic boom. Affluence-induced ebullience (e.g., the Camelot zeitgeist) is the fundamental driver of unprecedented activities (e.g., the Panama Canal; Apollo Moon program) characteristic of Maslow Windows.

Our current economic situation fits the 200-year-0ld pattern (as do current global trends) and points toward a new, transformative Maslow Window arriving by mid-decade.

That’s the story. A few details follow.
(A longer version of this post is available by clicking HERE.)

Although it was the only Maslow Window of the last 200+ years not to be preceded by a Panic or Great recession, the 1960s Maslow Window displayed their hallmark signatures.

The Apollo Maslow Window (~1958-69)

The Apollo Moon program was the greatest combined exploration and technology event in the history of the world because it was off-world. It was fundamentally triggered by a major economic boom preceded by the surprise 1957 launch of Sputnik and the intense competitive atmosphere of the Cold War. However in the typical pattern of Maslow Windows during the last 200 years, Apollo was effectively terminated by declining ebullience due to the escalating Vietnam War after 1966.

The 1960s were extraordinary. In their inaugural edition of “The Sixties” academic journal, the editors remark that the 1960′s produced an ebullience “that continues to intrigue, inspire, confound, amuse, tempt, repel, and capture us.”

In The Sixties, the editors recognize that “all this energy — by parts dignified, militant, uptopian, and delusional — was of great consequence…No recent decade has been so powerfully transformative in much of the world as have the Sixties.”

The 1960s Apollo Maslow Window displayed the classic characteristics of “critical states” over the last 200 years; Quotes are from Mackenzie and Weisbrot (2008).

1) Maslow Windows are brief, rare, profoundly transformative intervals:
They are watersheds that feature quantum leaps in technology, the economy, politics, and culture.
Powerful historical forces caught up with America in the 1960s and swept through every corner of national life…

2) Maslow Windows are triggered by major economic booms:
The 1960s were accompanied by unusual society-wide affluence.

America’s unprecedented affluence in the postwar years (was) keyed to an industrial engine that nearly doubled its output during the 1950s and again during the 1960s…

Disposable personal income, in constant dollars, grew by 33% in the 1950s. In the 1960s it grew by more than 50%.

3) Affluence-induced ebullience becomes widespread:
As ebullience spreads, many people ascend the Maslow hierarchy where their expanded worldviews and this brief, almost giddy feeling make most technology, exploration, and social programs seem not only favorable, but almost irresistible.

With wealth never before imagined, Americans could dream dreams never before possible. In the early years of the 1960s , national optimism reached epidemic levels …

The 1960s were presumed to be an age of unique possibilities. The wealth produced by the powerful engine of the American economy…made anything — and everything — seem possible…It was an optimistic age, and belief was too easily suspended.

4) Maslow Windows typically end abruptly:
As the economic boom begins to slow and/or geopolitical events intervene, ebullience fades and elevated Maslow states collapse. Affluent individuals or nations who do not ascend the Maslow hierarchy typically cause Maslow Windows to close prematurely.

By mid-1966 the liberal storm was passing…It came suddenly and raged briefly, but it left a deeply altered landscape in its wake … And the booming economy of the early 1960s…that fueled the limitless sense of possibility in those years, was also confronting the inevitabilities of the business cycle and the impacts of the combined costs of a foreign war (Vietnam) and a Great Society.

The Peary and Panama Maslow Window (~1903-1914)

The early 20th century Maslow Window featured the internationally contested polar expeditions, and the greatest macro-engineering project of the last 200 years (until Apollo) — the Panama Canal.

The Financial Panic of 1893 Signaled the New Maslow Window:
It caused unemployment over 10% for 5+ years. The crisis initially lasted only 18 months but was followed by another (double-dip) recession that continued into 1897. The combination of GDP declines of several % coupled with population growth meant that GDP per capita didn’t recover to 1892 levels until 1899.

The Panics of 1893 and 2008 have interesting parallels”
The Panic of 1893 began about 6 years before its recovery generated a JFK-style economic boom that triggered the Maslow Window, suggesting that the global economy should recover to its mid-2007 “greatest ever global boom” status by 2015.

World War I and the End of Ebullience:
According to historians Sullivan et al. (1993),

To a visitor from Mars it must have appeared that the Western world in 1914 was on the brink of Utopia.

Instead they were on the brink of WW I and the end of ebullience. Keep in mind that the Titanic set sail from England on April 10, 1912. Although clearly second to the Canal, it was another extraordinary MEP decorating the crown of this Maslow Window.

The Manifest Destiny Maslow Window (~1847-1860)

The mid-19th century Maslow Window was unique in its diffuse international focus. For example, the great exploration was Dr. Livingstone in central Africa and the Suez Canal was the primary MEP, neither of which originated in the U.S. However, global ebullience was so strong at the time that an American newspaperman was sent to find Dr. Livingstone because of the obsessive concern of Americans, while the Gold Rush erupted in California.

Even more remarkably, “manifest destiny” overwhelmed the U.S. under a most unlikely president (James Polk), while the great revolutions of 1848 swept Europe.

The Panic of 1837 Set the Stage:
The financial Panic of 1837 was a major contraction when 40% of the U.S. banks failed and unemployment was at record highs; it lasted 6 years until 1843. According to Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman writing in 1960, the Panic of 1837 …

is the only depression on record comparable in severity and scope to the Great Depression of the 1930s.

The Boom of 1845 Ignited Ebullience:
As Polk assumed the presidency in 1845, the dynamic duo of prosperity and ebullience was everywhere. According to historian Robert Merry,

the national economy had been expanding at an average annual rate of 3.9%. Not even the Panic of 1837, for all its destructive force, could forestall for long this creation of wealth.

And throughout the land could be seen a confidence that fueled national success. “We are now reaching the very height, perhaps, to which we can expect to ascend,” ebulliently declared the Democratic Wilmington Gazette of Delaware.

Ebullience and Human Expansion in the West:
Manifest Destiny was fueled by an “Exuberance of Spirit” across the U.S. Against all odds, this smaller-than-life man (President James Polk) ebulliently changed the world in only 4 short years.

In his unlikely, self-imposed one-term presidency, Polk accomplished the nearly impossible — he “engineered the triumph of Manifest Destiny” — including the annexation of Texas (1845), and the acquisition of the Oregon Territory (1846) and essentially the rest of the U.S. West including California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona — all by 1848.

The Lewis and Clark Maslow Window (~1791-1806)

The seminal Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-06) explored the Louisiana Territory to the Pacific and has many parallels with the 1960s Apollo Moon program and lessons for future human exploration

The Early Recession and the Boom:
Although this historical timeframe in America suffers from less official economic data than later Maslow Windows – not to mention a very new national government — it’s clear from historical accounts that similar economic triggers were operating.

A post-Revolutionary War “depression” existed from 1784-88. Its reality and severity are evidenced by the armed Shay’s Rebellion in 1786… Assuming the Stewart Energy cycle peak is near 1801 (1857 – 56), this would put the downturn about 17 years ahead of the peak; within one sigma of the observed intervals (21 yr) after the Panics of 1837 and 1893.

As we have learned to expect, after the recession of 1784-88 came the economic boom of the 1790s. The country’s credit was so good that every foreign money house was eager to offer low rates. The eastern industries and their financiers were “thriving,” as were the frontiersmen while Westward expansion gained momentum.

Affluence-induced ebullience was so strong that it added glue to the new national government by restraining the “hottest tempers” and making “conflict bearable.” The smaller, regional financial Panics of 1792 and 1796 did not alter this trend.

PLEASE NOTE: A longer version of this post is available by clicking HERE.

28 responses so far

28 Responses to “Our Current Weak Recovery Fits a 200-Year-Old Pattern”

  1. Nathan Fleischmanon 14 Apr 2015 at 2:20 pm

    I couldn’t find the longer version.

  2. Nathan Fleischmanon 16 Apr 2015 at 11:22 am

    It seems that the first and second Maslow Windows did not follow the rules regarding exploration and macro-engineering projects, respectively.

  3. Nathan Fleischmanon 17 Jun 2015 at 1:22 am

    Exploration Missions Macro-Engineering Projects, and Wars at the end are not the only key features of Maslow Windows. I, Nathan Fleischman, have that there are others. I will mention these in a series of responses. One of these of key features is communications. In the first Maslow Window, there is the mail. The mail system in America was first devised by Benjamin Franklin in 1753 when he became deputy postmaster general. He reorganized the postal system to be more efficient than it already was. When the American Revolution began, Ben Franklin established the US Post Office which is still in service today for the Second Continental Congress. Franklin was the first Postmaster General of what is now the US Postal Service. This mail system came of age during this first Maslow Window. Other countries also modernized their postal systems including the UK and France. In each Maslow Window that followed, a new more advanced system of communication came of age. The second Maslow Window had the telegraph. The telegraph was invented by Cooke and Wheatstone in 1837. Samuel Morse also invented the telegraph. The telegraph came of age during this second Maslow Window thanks to the invention of Morse Code. Morse Code was a simple way of sending messages. It was easy to translate to words. But not easy enough. At the same time, the mail was now being shipped by railroad and packages started being delivered. The third Maslow Window is defined by the telephone. The telephone was invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell. It started becoming common in the 1890s. However, it was during the third Maslow Window that the telephone came of age. People were making more calls than ever before. At the same time, the mail was now delivered by automobile as well as by train. Also, the telegraph had started to go wireless. Wireless telegraphy was used when the Titanic sank. This would give rise to the radio and later the television. As it turns out, television was the new communication medium of the fourth Maslow Window. First adopted in the US in 1939, television is an offshoot of the radio which allowed for communication in a way that no other methods of communication could do. Television became commonplace in the Fifties. However, it was in the Sixties that television came of age. TV news entered the mainstream, and TV shows dealt with social issues in uncontroversial ways. Once the fourth Maslow Window ended, television started to reflect reality even more. At the same time, the mail was being transported by plane as well as by truck and train. The telephone call was revolutionized when it became possible to dial a phone number making it easier to make a call. The fifth Maslow Window will be defined in terms of communication by the computer and the Internet. Computer had been getting smaller since the 1940s. By the Eighties, they were small enough to fit on a desk. At the same time, in 1969, ARPANet was created. In 1977, TCP/IP was created to allow computers on ARPANet o better talk to each other. In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web. In 1994, the first notable Web browser, Netscape Navigator, was created. In 2003, the first social networking site, MySpace was created. At the same time, computers got smaller. The smartphone allows more than just Internet connection. You can play games on a smartphone and more. The fifth Maslow Window will be when the Internet comes of age. Parcels are the only form of mail that will survive. The telegraph is dead. Soon landline phones will be restricted to offices. Payphones will be dead. Fax machines will also be dead. Radio and television will go digital. The smartphones will render kill off desktops, laptops, and tablets. The smartwatch might end up replacing the smartphone. Communication is clearly changing fast thanks to the computer and the Internet.

  4. Nathan Fleischmanon 18 Jun 2015 at 4:03 am

    Here is another key feature of Maslow Windows. It is none other transportation. The first Maslow Window was clearly defined by water transport and the horse-and-wagon. These have been around for thousands of years just like the mail. Water transport is still the cheapest. Having been revolutionized by the Iberians in the 15th century water transport was something the British and the Americans quite well. Britain is an island. America has the Mississippi River and its tributaries. Control of the Mississippi River and its tributaries was an imperative of the US. This led to the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. During this Maslow Window, the steamboat was invented by Robert Fulton, allowing for faster transport. Steam engines soon found themselves in other means of transport. The second Maslow Window was dominated by the railroad. The first steam railway connected Liverpool and Manchester in the 1830s. During the second Maslow Window, the B&O Railroad which had also opened in the 1830s was finally completed. The Great Western Railway was acquiring other railways in western England and Wales. The railroad also helped the Union win the Civil War after the second Maslow Window ended. The third Maslow Window saw the arrival of the car. Henry Ford made this possible. Although this stupid anti-Semite ended up inspiring Adolf Hitler, I nevertheless admire his contributions to the car. The assembly line also revolutionized manufacturing in general. This was also the Golden Age of the Ocean Liner as well as a time rail transport was very common. The fourth Maslow Window was the time when air travel became affordable. American Airlines was the first to buy the Boeing 707 in 1959. The majority of people now flew in the Wright Brothers’ invention. By now, diesels had replaced steam engines on ships and rails and cars were had driven the trolley out of existence. The plane had also driven the ocean liner out of existence. The fifth Maslow Window will certainly be when space travel is brought to everyday people. While megaships will soon be built, high-speed trains are leaving wheels behind, and cars are leaving fossil fuels behind, spaceships could give air travel a run for its money. Space travel will not replace air travel. Neither will the hyperloop which uses air levitation in a partial vacuum tube. But they outcompete airplanes in certain areas. Also, spaceships will go to the Moon. This is certainly a revolution in spaceflight.

  5. Nathan Fleischmanon 18 Jun 2015 at 10:49 pm

    Here is a key of feature of Maslow Windows that has already been mentioned on this website. It is pre- or early Maslow Window conflicts. The first Maslow Window did not entirely follow the rules. There is indication tensions began with the Jay Treaty. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, the US signed the Jay Treaty with Britain in 1794. This led to the XYZ Affair in 1797 which in turn led to the Quasi-War in 1798. Once the Quasi-War ended in 1800, there was still issues with France. France had regained Louisiana from Spain. President Jefferson wanted New Orleans. He got all of Louisiana. Peace seemed to reign, but this led to the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. The second Maslow Window has the Mexican-American War. These tensions began with the Texas Revolution in 1836. Texas won its independence from Mexico. Conflicts continued between Texas and Mexico. The United States sided with Texas and later annexed it in 1845. This led to the Mexican-American War in 1846. The United States won the war and took most of what is now the American Southwest thereby setting a precedent that Israel followed in 1967. Of course, this would lead to the American Civil War in 1861. The third Maslow Window has the Spanish-American War. The tensions really began in Cuba. Previous wars in Cuba led to the abolition of slavery in Cuba, However, in 1895, Cuba started fighting for independence. The US had pro-Cuban sympathies partly because of geopolitics. Then, in 1898, the USS Maine exploded triggering the Spanish-American War which was a clear victory for the US. The Spanish, who had helped America win its independence, felt betrayed but relations are still good today. However, war broke out in the Philippines not long after. The Filipinos sought independence. In 1902, peace was made and a long transition to independence was made. These events showed that the US was emerging on the world stage. This led to America’s involvement in both WWI and WWII. The fourth Maslow Window has a conflict that had started in 1947 with the Soviet Union called the Cold War which would continue until 1989. However, it was in 1960 that tensions escalated. The Soviets shot down an American U2 spy plane that was spying on them. The following year, the Bay of Pigs Invasion failed. Then came the Berlin Crisis which led to the construction of the Berlin Wall. Finally, in 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred. The US and the Soviet Union managed to avoid a war. This would, however, lead to the Vietnam War and eventually to the end of the Cold War. The fifth Maslow Window is just starting and already we are seeing a pre- or early Maslow Window conflict emerging. Candidates are North Korea, Iran, and Venezuela. However, I think the most likely candidate is Ukraine. I think that what is going on in Ukraine is starting an early Maslow Window Conflict. I am pretty sure that a Second Cold War has begun as predicted by Stratfor in 2009.

  6. Nathan Fleischmanon 18 Jun 2015 at 11:11 pm

    It is shocking. When a Maslow Window begins, it does not seem obvious that it has begun. When the first Maslow Window began in 1791, it did not seem obvious that it began. There was the French Revolution in Europe and the Whiskey Rebellion in America. By 1801, however, Napoleon Bonaparte had stabilized France, and the US was stable thanks to Thomas Jefferson. The second Maslow Window did not seem obvious when it began in 1847. The US was still fighting with Mexico. Also, in Europe, there were the Revolutions of 1848. However, by 1857, the British and the French had won the Crimean War and the US had most of its current territory. The third Maslow Window did not seem obvious either when it began in 1903. The robber barons still had control of the US economy. The most notable was John D. Rockefeller. By 1913, however, Standard Oil had been broken up, Andrew Carnegie was no longer head of US Steel, and J. P. Morgan was dead. Products were now available to consumers thanks to Henry Ford’s assembly line. The fourth Maslow Window was also not very obvious when it began. With the launch of Sputnik in 1957, it seemed like the Soviet Union was ahead of the United States. JFK even said that the Americans were letting the Soviets get ahead. By 1969, however, the US had won the Space Race and made it to the Moon. The fifth Maslow Window has begun, but it does not seem obvious yet given what Jeb Bush is saying. By 2025, I have no doubt the US will still be on top.

  7. Nathan Fleischmanon 19 Jun 2015 at 1:40 am

    You might not notice this, but during each Maslow Window, a major political figure dies. Each death occurs in a major player in world politics. During the first Maslow Window, that major player was France. The execution of Louis XVI occurred in 1793. This started the Reign of Terror in France. The instability in France eventually led to the rise of Napoleon. During the second Maslow Window, that major player was the UK. While it is difficult to pinpoint the political figure that died, I am going with Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He died in 1861 of typhoid fever thus ending the second Maslow Window in Europe. His wife, Queen Victoria, went into seclusion for a decade. The monarchy nearly fell apart, and this might have helped the rise of Germany. During the third Maslow Window, there were seven major players, including Germany, the UK, and the US. However, the major player with the death of a major political figure was none of them. Edward VII might have died during this time, but that pales comparison to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. This assassination ended the third Maslow Window and triggered World War I. During the fourth Maslow Window, the major player that saw the death of a major political figure was the United States of America. I am talking about President John F. Kennedy. On November 22, 1963, in my birthplace of Dallas, TX, President Kennedy was assassinated. This event changed America forever. As LBJ was more willing to listen to military advice when he became president, the Vietnam War was escalated thus leading to the Tet Offensive. The fifth Maslow Window has not seen the death of a major political figure just yet. It is only just starting. I do not know what will happen in this Maslow Window.

  8. Nathan Fleischmanon 19 Jun 2015 at 2:46 am

    How do wars fit into Maslow Windows? This is the one of the main features of Maslow Windows. The first Maslow Window had the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. During this Maslow Window, it was only a matter of time before such a war happened. This is common throughout all the Maslow Windows. However, there is also the War of 1812 which ended the first Maslow Window in America. Both wars are connected. Napoleon attempted to create an empire. This triggered the Napoleonic Wars. Britain’s foreign policy during these wars meant keeping the United States from having access to Europe out of fear that they would side with France. This triggered the War of 1812 which ended with no win for either side. The second Maslow Window also had two wars at its end. The first was the American Civil War. The second was the Franco-Prussian War. The Civil War was fought over slavery and preservation of the Union. The North ended up winning the war. Slavery was ended. The Union was brought back together. In Europe, the Franco-Prussian War was started by France to prevent the unification of Germany. France failed miserably and was devastated by the Germans. The third Maslow Window is the first to have only one war at its end. That war is World War I. This bloody war of attrition was supposed a simple war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. However, Russia sided with Serbia which led Germany to declare war on Russia. This brought France into the war. Germany’s attempt to defeat France by going through Belgium led to Britain declaring war on Germany. Germany lost the war. The effects of the war on Germany led to World War II. The fourth Maslow Window had the Vietnam War. The Tet Offensive and subsequent events that followed led to the US leaving Vietnam and to the fall of Saigon in 1975. It is certain that there will be a war at the end of the fifth Maslow Window. What it will be, I don’t know. We will just have to wait and see.

  9. Nathan Fleischmanon 19 Jun 2015 at 3:38 am

    If you look closely at each Maslow Window, you 1-2 major political figures per Maslow Window that end up in disgrace after each war that ends a Maslow Window. The first Maslow Window is a good example of that. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. Napoleon was defeated and exiled to Saint Helena in disgrace. Napoleon has pretty much been a loose cannon in this regard, but even more significant was King George IV of England. While he may won the Napoleonic Wars, he way of life made him very unpopular with his people. Even the Duke of Wellington hated him. The second Maslow Window also and more definitely had 2 political disgraces, this time on two separate continents: Europe and North America. In the US, Andrew Johnson, who became president after Lincoln’s assassination, was nuts, ad his views did not fall in line with the rest of the country. His attempts to bypass Congress in his policies towards the South led to his unsuccessful impeachment. However, he was so unpopular that he is still today considered one of the worst presidents in US history. In Europe, Napoleon III’s failure in the Franco-Prussian War left him disgraced. He was overthrown and sent into exile in Britain. The third Maslow Window also had two different political disgraces from two different continents. In Europe, there was Kaiser Wilhelm II. When Germany was defeated in World War I, Kaiser Wilhelm II was blamed for his foreign policy which led to war. He was disgraced as a result and forced to abdicate. In the US, Warren Harding, President of the United States, often chose men who were corrupt to run departments. After he died in office, the Teapot Dome Scandal erupted thus making Harding the only president to be disgraced after death. The fourth Maslow Window might have LBJ whose conduct in the Vietnam War ruined his reputation a little. However, there is only one political figure who I can say was really disgraced after the Vietnam War. That man is Richard Nixon. His policies were great. He created the EPA. He helped integrate whites and blacks. He even open the door to China. However, he is best known for the scandal that ended his presidency. What started out as a third-rate burglary at the Watergate Hotel turned into a major scandal that engulfed the US Government. The Watergate scandal ultimately led to Nixon’s resignation. The fifth Maslow Window will likely have its own disgraced politician(s). We will just have to wait and see.

  10. Nathan Fleischmanon 19 Jun 2015 at 5:51 pm

    As has already been noticed, one key feature of Maslow Windows is social change and/or efforts for it. The first Maslow Window has the French Revolution. France might have helped America win its independence from the UK, but it ended up being the nation that suffered the most during the Revolution. In 1789, France had its own revolution. This led to the overthrow of the monarchy. This, in turn, led to the Reign of Terror which ended one of the French Revolution’s leader, Maximilian Robespierre, executed himself. The instability that followed led to the rise of Napoleon. The second Maslow Window had 2 events. The first was the 1848 revolutions. This was when the House of Bourbon was finally overthrown for good. While little political change occurred, there was a lot of social change. In the US, the people dealt with the issue of slavery. The abolitionist movement sought to end slavery in the US for good. Many major abolitionists ended up dead before the Civil War ended slavery for good. The most notable was John Brown who raided Harper’s Ferry and was executed for it. The third Maslow Window is defined by the Progressive Era. Reforms brought an end to monopolies and cleaned up everything. A few social reformers during this time ended up dying including Susan B. Anthony, but their work ended up paying off. The fourth Maslow Window is defined by the Civil Rights Movement. The Civil Rights Movement helped bring an end to segregation in the United States. This in turn also helped bring the Feminist Movement, the United Farm Workers union, the Environmentalist Movement, the Anti-Vietnam War Movement, and the Gay Rights Movement. Of course, one of the leading activists of the time, Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated in 1968 along with a few others. The fifth Maslow Window is just beginning. The Arab Spring is only a start. Other issues have emerged in the spotlight including same-sex marriage, police brutality, illegal immigration, etc. Who knows what will happen?

  11. Nathan Fleischmanon 21 Jun 2015 at 5:04 pm

    One thing that is noticeable in each Maslow Window is that music is revolutionized. The first Maslow Window music-wise begins with the death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, but not before premieres his opera, The Magic Flute. It established the German opera tradition. Mozart and his contemporary, Joseph Haydn, helped set up the musical landscape of the first Maslow Window. During the first Maslow Window, Haydn would produce his London Symphonies and his Emperor Quartet, among others. However, the first Maslow Windows is dominated primarily by Haydn’s student, Ludwig van Beethoven. While he started out in the musical landscape he grew up in with his piano sonatas and first two symphonies, around the time the Lewis and Clark Expedition started, Beethoven began to revolutionize music. His third symphony, the Eroica, was longer than any other symphony before it. This was Beethoven’s most revolutionary symphony to date. He was influenced by the ideals of the French Revolution and had initially dedicated his third symphony to Napoleon until he declared himself emperor. The French Revolution’s influence can also be seen in his only opera, Fidelio, which involves a political prisoner seeking freedom. His fifth and sixth symphonies would help bring the beginning of the Romantic period in music which started in 1815 after the first Maslow Window ended. It was when his ninth symphony premiered in 1824 that it was clear that a new musical landscape had been born. The second Maslow Window also saw a revolution in music. The musical landscape created by Beethoven was expanded on by Felix Mendelssohn and Hector Berlioz. These two composers set up the musical landscape of the second Maslow Window. 1847 was the year Mendelssohn died. Two years later, so did Frédéric Chopin. During the second Maslow Window, Berlioz would compose his most famous opera, Les Troyens. On the conservative side of the musical landscape, Robert Schumann, who succeeded Franz Schubert as the leading composer of art songs, would premiere his last symphony in 1851. After he died, his student, Johannes Brahms, would start composing his first symphony which would not premiere until 1876. At the same time in Italy, Giuseppe Verdi composed his most famous operas which were political satires of Italy’s situation at the time. On the progressive side, Franz Liszt, who, like Chopin, was mostly known for his piano works, took the concert overture pioneered by Mendelssohn and incorporated elements from the program symphonies of Berlioz to create the symphonic poem. During the second Maslow Window, Liszt composed twelve symphonic poems. His thirteenth would come many years later. Liszt would also introduce other innovations to music, like musical nationalism, that would influence other composers. One composer influenced by Liszt was Richard Wagner who would end the second Maslow Window with his opera Tristan und Isolde which would not premiere until 1865. Wagner was influenced in this opera by Arthur Schopenhauer and his philosophy. It would be years before his Ring cycle finally premiered. These guys set the musical landscape of the War of the Romantics. The third Maslow Window would see another revolution in music. The composer who set up the landscape for the third Maslow Window was Gustav Mahler. After Johannes Brahms and and Anton Bruckner, Gustav Mahler was the leading composer of symphonies. He would continue composing during the third Maslow Window. So would Richard Strauss who composed his operas during this time. One composer that would emerge during this Maslow Window was Claude Debussy. His compositions were influenced by the music from Russia and Asia. He was the father of Impressionism in music. At the same time, Arnold Schoenberg started working with atonality, thus giving rise to avant-garde music. Igor Stravinsky would compose his most famous works during this time. The notable came at the end of this Maslow Window. It was a ballet called The Rite of Spring which caused a riot upon its premiere. Last of all was Scott Joplin. He invented ragtime which would influence the blues and later jazz. All of these composers revolutionized music set up a new musical landscape. The fourth Maslow Window was the one with the most notable musical revolution in modern times. The musical landscape for the fourth Maslow Window was set up by among others, Cole Porter. Cole Porter brought classical and jazz elements into popular song. Thanks to Cole Porter, popular music could now rival classical music for audiences. Around the time the fourth Maslow Window began, Leonard Bernstein had composed the most influential musical of all time, West Side Story, which depicted the street culture of New York City. This was just before Sputnik was launched triggering the fourth Maslow Window. At the same time, film composer Bernard Herrmann was working with Alfred Hitchcock. Their two most famous collaborations came after Leonard Bernstein had premiered West Side Story. They were Vertigo and Psycho. These two movies revolutionized film music. However, during the fourth Maslow Window, the most important group in the music world was, of course, the Beatles. The Beatles incorporated classical, avant-garde, and Indian (meaning the South Asian country) elements into their music. After the Beatles broke up in 1970, a new variety of music was influenced by them. It was not just popular music. Classical music was also influenced by the Beatles. This is shown in Minimalism the most popular style of 20th-century classical music. The fifth Maslow Window is most likely to feature a new revolution in music. The musical landscape for this revolution has already been set up by the incorporation of the synthesizer into popular music and the advent of hip-hop. We will most likely see a revolution in hip-hop or electronic music very soon. Or we might see electronic hip-hop music dominating the charts.

  12. Nathan Fleischmanon 24 Jun 2015 at 6:45 pm

    Exploration is obviously one of the main features of Maslow Windows. However, in each Maslow Window, there is not one exploration. There is two. The first Maslow Window features the Lewis and Clark expedition. This was the primary exploration mission. It led to greater knowledge of the North American continent. The secondary exploration mission was carried out by Prussian explorer Alexander von Humboldt in Latin America. Humboldt was the first to describe Latin America scientifically. His work would later influence Charles Darwin. During the second Maslow Window, the primary exploration mission was to the mission of Dr. Livingstone to Africa. His explorations mapped out Africa. At the same time, the secondary exploration mission was conducted by Ida Pfeiffer. Pfeiffer was one of the first female explorers. She explored exotic locales like Borneo. During the third Maslow Window, the primary exploration mission was carried out by Robert Peary. He was the first to reach the North Pole. This was followed by a secondary exploration mission by Roald Amundsen to the South Pole. He was the most successful explorer of Antarctica. During the fourth Maslow Window, the primary exploration mission was Apollo 11. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first two people to walk on the Moon. Space exploration had gone on throughout the Sixties with the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. There was a secondary exploration mission in 1960 to the Mariana Trench. Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh went to the bottom of the trench which the deepest place in the ocean. The fifth Maslow Window will have both a primary and a secondary exploration mission. The primary mission will be in space, eventually reaching Mars. The secondary mission will most likely be underwater. Who knows?

  13. Nathan Fleischmanon 27 Jun 2015 at 4:36 pm

    Let’s look a little more in depth on Macro-Engineering Projects. The first Maslow Window is not said to have them. The closest to a primary MEP would probably be the Erie Canal in New York which was completed in 1825. The closest to a secondary MEP would be the Arc du Triomphe in Paris which was dedicated to Napoleon in 1806. The second Maslow Window did not follow the rules when it had the first MEPS of a Maslow Window just as the first Maslow Window hadn’t with exploration. The primary MEP was the Suez Canal in Egypt which reduced travel times around the world when it opened in 1869. This may have helped inspire Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days. The secondary MEP was the SS Great Eastern built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1858. This ship helped lay the first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable in 1866, one year after the Civil War. The third Maslow Window had stabilized this key element of Maslow Windows. The primary MEP was the Panama Canal which connected the Atlantic and the Pacific and made travel times shorter in 1906. The secondary MEP was the Titanic which was built in 1912, but unfortunately sank on its maiden voyage. The fourth Maslow Window was quite peculiar. The primary macro-engineering project was with the primary exploration mission. It was the Apollo program which brought man to the Moon in 1969. The secondary MEP was the Mackinac Bridge which opened in 1957, connecting the two parts of Michigan. The fifth Maslow Window already seems to have its secondary MEP. It is the Large Hadron Collider which recently discovered the Higgs boson. The primary MEP hasn’t started yet, but it will probably be the program for exploration of Mars.

  14. Nathan Fleischmanon 04 Jul 2015 at 6:17 pm

    If you look closely, you can see that each Maslow Window has its own counterculture. The first Maslow Window had a counterculture called Romanticism. This can be seen in the art, music, and literature of the time. Painters like Eugene Delacroix, writers like Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and composers like Ludwig van Beethoven epitomized this counterculture. The second and third Maslow Windows had the same counterculture of Bohemianism. This involved unconventional lifestyle by many artists who were marginalized and impoverished. The fourth Maslow Window had two subcultures. The first was the Beat Generation. This was counterculture of sex, drugs, and rock n’ roll that in turn gave rise to the counterculture of the 1960s which is the second counterculture of the fourth Maslow Window. Sex, drugs, and rock n’ roll were part of this counterculture, but so was social change, new media, etc. It has influenced society of today. The fifth Maslow Window will most likely have a counterculture of its own.

  15. Nathan Fleischmanon 11 Jul 2015 at 10:21 pm

    You might not notice this. But after each Maslow Window and especially after the war that follows, there is often trouble with criminals. After the first Maslow Window, the US government had issues with Native Americans which were not criminals, but were still a problem. They were resisting the occupation of their lands. The Native Americans were a major player in the War of 1812. Andrew Jackson forced the remaining Native Americans to the Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma. After the second Maslow Window, the Native Americans were a problem again. They were eventually confined to reservations. What the Americans did to the Indians was very disgusting. It ended up inspiring the Holocaust. Also after the second Maslow Window, a new problem emerged. Criminals referred to as outlaws were running rampant. Outlaws, like Jesse James and Billy the Kid, were everywhere. Many of them were later killed. Others were arrested and later hanged. After the third Maslow Window, the outlaws were back as bootleggers. They sold illegal alcohol during Prohibition. At the same time, organized crime became a major problem. Gangsters, like Al Capone, fought to control the illegal liquor trade. After the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre in 1929, it became clear that Prohibition had failed. Within four years, it was gone. After the fourth Maslow Window, the Mafia, Al Capone’s organization was still a problem. It is no longer as powerful as it once was. At the same time, there were cults, like the Manson Family and the People’s Temple, and serial killers, like Ted Bundy, were causing trouble. Crime rates were very high. After the fifth Maslow Window ends it is likely we will see murderers still be a problem. However, a new problem will also be at the forefront. The most likely will be terrorism, both domestic and international, especially cyberterrorism. The Internet makes a lot of things possible, like cybercrime.

  16. Nathan Fleischmanon 15 Jul 2015 at 8:46 pm

    I might seem crazy, but after each Maslow Window, new forms of entertainment emerge. Before and during the first Maslow Window, plays, operas, oratorios, and absolute instrumental music were the primary forms of entertainment. After the first Maslow Window, program music emerged. Program music tells a definite story. During the second Maslow Window, Franz Liszt invented the symphonic poem which revolutionized program music. After the second Maslow Window, operettas and ballets emerged as forms of entertainment. Also emerging at the same time, were Wagner’s music dramas and the resurgence of absolute music thanks to Brahms. During the third Maslow Window, ragtime was a major form of entertainment. After the third Maslow Window, the blues, jazz, film, and radio emerged as forms of entertainment. The movies had their own music to go with them. So did radio. Before and during the fourth Maslow Window, television and rock music emerged as new forms of entertainment. After the fourth Maslow Window, multiple forms of rock music, including disco, punk rock, new wave, heavy metal, and grunge. Also emerging was hip-hop. Video games emerged as a major form of entertainment. The VCR revolutionized entertainment completely. So did cable and satellite television. We are now seeing the Internet emerge. After the fifth Maslow Window, I do not know what will emerge.

  17. Nathan Fleischmanon 22 Jul 2015 at 12:28 am

    After each Maslow Window, there is always a crisis which leads to change. The time in between a Maslow Window and a crisis always differs per Maslow Window. After the Maslow Window and the War of 1812, there was the Era of Good Feelings. Then came the failed presidency of John Quincy Adams who had not won the majority of the vote. This led to the election of Andrew Jackson and the arrival of Jacksonian democracy. Jackson’s reforms, including cheap money to protect debtors, created a new system in which the pioneers dominated which lasted until after the second Maslow Window. After the second Maslow Window and the Civil War, there was Reconstruction and the Long Depression. Ulysses S. Grant failed to solve the problems that the Jacksonian system had created. When Rutherford B. Hayes was controversially elected, the government was suffering from corruption not seen since the time of John Quincy Adams. With the help of Treasury Secretary John Sherman, Hayes implemented money backed by gold and other reforms which led to the Pendelton Civil Service Act, signed by President Chester A. Arthur in 1883. Small towns dominated during this time. After the third Maslow Window and World War I came the Roaring Twenties. The Roaring Twenties later gave way to the Great Depression. Herbert Clark Hoover was unwilling to help the economy recover thinking it could recover on its own which it couldn’t. The response was the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. FDR implemented the New Deal to increase consumption as it had become clear that unemployment was not caused by laziness. The industrial city was now the dominant force in the economy. Just as Jackson and Hayes had mastered the news paper, FDR took advantage of the radio. This helped him get his message across. The New Deal and WWII improved the economy. However, after the fourth Maslow Window, the Vietnam War, and Watergate, the reforms of the New Deal led to stagflation. Neither Gerald Ford nor Jimmy Carter were able to solve the problem and only made it worse. This led to the election of Ronald Reagan who took advantage of television and employed supply-side economics. The suburbs were now the dominant force in the economy. After the fifth Maslow Window and the subsequent war, labor will become a major problem because there won’t be enough. In the 2030s, a new President will come which ends all immigration restrictions. Immigration creates a new labor force that will dominate the economy.

    Thanks Nathan. Appreciate your interest and comments.

  18. Nathan Fleischmanon 23 Jul 2015 at 4:04 pm

    I am not done yet. I have some more comments to make. In this comment, I am saying after each Maslow Window, not only do new forms of entertainment emerge as I mentioned in one of my previous comments, but old forms are revolutionized. After the first Maslow Window and the wars that followed, Beethoven was still revolutionizing classical music with his Ninth Symphony. This was the first choral symphony, and from there, instrumental music was expanded upon by other composers like Mendelssohn and Berlioz. At the same time, German opera composers were no longer writing Italian operas. Carl Maria von Weber was the first German opera composer to take German opera out of the Singspiel tradition heralded by Mozart and Beethoven for good. After the second Maslow Window, Richard Wagner, who was influenced by Berlioz and Liszt, revolutionized the opera as a whole. The distinction between recitative and aria was completely blurred. Other composers applied Wagner’s innovations to other types of music. This would lead to the musical avant-garde of the 20th century. After the third Maslow Window, the up-and-coming movie industry was revolutionized by many movies. The most notable is Citizen Kane. Not only was film music revolutionized by Bernard Herrmann, but so was everything else in the film including the script. After the fourth Maslow Window, television started to tackle issues of the day. This would lead to The Sopranos. Even more important, the movie industry was revolutionized even further with the arrival of summer blockbusters like Jaws and Star Wars which now dominate the movie industry. After the fifth Maslow Window, we will likely see the movies revolutionized again. More importantly, we will see television revolutionized in a way that not even the movie industry could have predicted with Citizen Kane or the television industry could have with The Sopranos. Think of that.

  19. Nathan Fleischmanon 27 Jul 2015 at 10:01 pm

    Women have managed to move higher up after each Maslow Window. After the first Maslow Window, job opportunities opened for women that just weren’t there before. It wasn’t much, but it was a start. After the second Maslow Window, married women were finally allowed to own their own property in most states. Also, some states allowed women to vote. After the third Maslow Window, most, if not all, Protestant nations including the United States allowed women to vote. In the US, the 19th Amendment made sure of it. Women could now take governmental positions as well. After the fourth Maslow Window, women made strides in women’s rights. Catholic nations now allowed women to vote. In the US, Roe vs. Wade allowed women to have abortions. Although the Equal Rights Amendment did not succeed, some states including Texas adopted similar amendments in their state constitutions. After the fifth Maslow Window, I predict that more strides will be made in women’s rights. I don’t know what they will be, but something will happen. I know it.

  20. Nathan Fleischmanon 31 Jul 2015 at 3:51 pm

    After each Maslow Window, you might notice that strides are made to protect environment. After the first Maslow Window, while there was not much in terms of conservation, there were environmental activists who were part of the counterculture of Romanticism like William Wordsworth. After the second Maslow Window was when conservation really began. Yellowstone National Park became the first national park in history. Efforts were put in place to clean the cities and that included water treatment. After the third Maslow Window, there were even more national parks. The extinction of the passenger pigeon helped spur conservation efforts. After the fourth Maslow Window, there were a lot of major strides in the environmental movement. Earth Day came into existence. The EPA was created. DDT was banned. There were a lot of major strides. After the fifth Maslow Window, I predict that there will be more.

  21. Nathan Fleischmanon 02 Aug 2015 at 12:30 am

    If you look closely, you will notice that an international issue emerges that eventually leads the major war at the end of each Maslow Window. The problem continue to exist for a few decades afterwards. Before the first Maslow Window, this trend had started with the issue of revolutions caused the desire for freedom. The American Revolution led to the French Revolution which led to the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812 both of which ended the first Maslow Window. Revolutions continued to occur for several decades afterwards with most of them ending by 1848. After the first Maslow Window, slavery emerged as a major problem. The Europeans abolished slavery by the 1840s. However, thanks to the invention of the cotton gin, slavery was thriving in the Southern United States. This led to the Civil War in America which ended slavery for good and the second Maslow Window as well. However, Latin America continued to struggle with slavery, but by the 1890s, there were very few, if any, slave-holding countries in the West, partly due to the Spanish-American War. After the second Maslow Window, the issue of imperialism emerged. The subjugation of people’s everywhere caused a lot of trouble. This didn’t just happen in Africa and Asia. In Europe, there were nations who did the same to other Europeans. This led to World War I which saw the collapse of four great European empires and ended the third Maslow Window. Imperialism remained an issue until World War II made it unacceptable in the West. After the Maslow Window, a new threat emerged. It was Communism. This triggered the Cold War which led to the Vietnam War which failed to stop the spread of Communism and ended the fourth Maslow Window. Communism did not cease to be a major problem until 1989 when the Soviet Union collapsed. After the fourth Maslow Window, terrorism emerged as a major threat. This has led to the War on Terror. I have no doubt that war that ends the fifth Maslow Window will involve terrorism. Terrorism will most likely continue to be a major threat until the mid-21st century. After the fifth Maslow Window, I am pretty sure a new threat will emerge that affects the entire world. I think it will involve the Internet.

  22. Nathan Fleischmanon 17 Aug 2015 at 8:55 pm

    The situation in music after each Maslow Window is very similar for all four Maslow Windows. Musical conservatives attempt to return music its routes but do not succeed in the end. After the first Maslow Window, the musical conservatives were Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Schumann. The progressives were Chopin and Berlioz. Beethoven continued revolutionizing music with his ninth symphony. Afterwards, he died. Schubert died not long after, mostly composing art songs and symphonies. Mendelssohn’s essentially conservative musical tastes set him apart from other composers. He did, however, take styles from the Classical period, most notable of which was the overture which was taken out of the opera and became its own piece, and improved them.The moderate Robert Schumann supported him. Chopin was a moderate progressive composer who, like Schumann, mostly wrote piano music, influencing later composers, like Franz Liszt and Hugo Wolf. The leading progressive composer was Hector Berlioz. His Symphonie fantastique took Beethoven’s concept of the program symphony and expanded upon it. Mendelssohn, Schumann, Chopin, and Berlioz would all influence Franz Liszt with his symphonic poems and piano works during the second Maslow Window. After the second Maslow Window, Franz Liszt continued to revolutionize classical music. He was joined by Richard Wagner with his operas, like Tristan und Isolde and the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen. The anti-Semitic Wagner ended up influencing guys like Anton Bruckner, Hugo Wolf, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, and Arnold Schoenberg. Wagner faced competition from the musical conservative Johannes Brahms who would influence Bruckner, Mahler, and Schoenberg. It was called the War of the Romantics. Brahms and Wagner represented opposing sides of the war. Hostilities subsided over the years. By then, a new style emerged called Impressionism. It was invented in Russia by Modest Mussorgsky and perfected in France by Claude Debussy who would continue revolutionizing music along with Ravel, Joplin, Stravinsky, and Schoenberg during the third Maslow Window. After the third Maslow Window, Ravel continued Impressionism while Stravinsky and Schoenberg fought over the future of music in what I call the War of the Modernists. On the radical modernist side was Arnold Schoenberg and his students, Alban Berg and Anton Webern, who championed atonality which meant no scales. On the moderate modernist side, was Igor Stravinsky who after The Rite of Spring had turned to neoclassicism. He was supported by Bela Bartok and Charles Ives although not personally. After World War II, the radical modernists won and composers like Stravinsky and Copland turned to serialism. John Cage went even further creating chance music. At the same time, a new style known as jazz had emerged. It was a combination of the classical style of ragtime and another style called the blues which was popular around the same time as jazz. George Gershwin brought jazz to the mainstream with Rhapsody in Blue in 1924. He was followed by Cole Porter who brought classical elements into popular song, a related style that along with country and R&B would give rise to rock n’ roll. Popular songs were found in musicals, the most important of which was West Side Story by Leonard Bernstein in 1957. Not long afterwards, Bernard Herrmann revolutionized film music with his score for Vertigo, North by Northwest, and Psycho. Psycho helped begin the fourth Maslow Window. IN the early years of that Maslow Window, Bob Dylan invented the protest song. In the later years, Bob Dylan would influence the Beatles who revolutionized popular music. After the fourth Maslow Window, the Beatles broke up. A style called minimalism emerged. Philip Glass, Steve Reich, and John Adams were its most noticeable proponents. Brian Eno and David Bowie also took up that style, thus influencing glam rock, punk rock, and alternative rock styles like grunge. The musical conservative of this period was Bruce Springsteen who was nicknamed the new Bob Dylan. Springsteen wrote songs like Born to Run and Born in the USA and would influence modern country music acts like Garth Brooks. At the same time, John Williams brought a resurgence of the symphonic film score with Star Wars. Led Zeppelin was a rock band who’s style influenced every major act in hard rock, heavy metal, and grunge. At the same time, R&B artists like Isaac Hayes, Marvin Gaye, and Stevie Wonder gave rise to disco. The Bee Gees became the most notable disco group. They, in turn, would influence Michael Jackson and Madonna as well as teen pop groups like the Backstreet Boys. The use of the synthesizer ended up revolutionizing music of all kinds in the 1980s. New wave and synthpop were offshoots of punk rock. They used electronic instruments. In the 1990s, grunge was a popular style with Kurt Cobain of Nirvana leading. At the same time, hip-hop revolutionized music in a way that only Chopin, Mussorgsky, and Bernstein would be proud of. I can safely that current equivalent of Haydn, Berlioz, Mahler, and Dylan at this moment is Taylor Swift. She is one of the most popular music acts at this time. I have a feeling as the fifth Maslow Window goes on, we will see the equivalent of Beethoven, Liszt, Debussy, and the Beatles who will revolutionize popular music by combining electropop with hip-hop and Asian music and minimalism. After the fifth Maslow Window, I think there will be a musical conservative like Mendelssohn, Brahms, Stravinsky, and Springsteen who will try to return music to its roots, but, like them, will not succeed as the progressives will win and new revolutionary styles will arrive. This will be my last comment for now.

  23. Nathan Fleischmanon 03 Apr 2016 at 12:24 am

    I am back. You might notice that after each Maslow Window, there is a time of political change in the United States. During each time of political change, one form of entertainment emerges as a major art form. During the time of Andrew Jackson, plays and operas entered the mainstream as art forms in their own right. There was an interest in the plays of Shakespeare and the operas of Mozart. At the same time a new form of entertainment was emerging. It was the circus. During the time of Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, and Chester A. Arthur, circus was now seen as an art form in its own right. The golden age of the circus began. P.T. Barnum was responsible for this. Thanks to Eadweard Muybridge, a new form of entertainment had been invented. It was the movies. During the time FDR was in the White House, movies became a leading form of entertainment thanks to the advent of talking pictures. It was the beginning of the Golden Age of Hollywood. At the same time, radio emerged as another leading form of entertainment which gave rise to the television. During the time Ronald Reagan was in the White House, television was seen as an art form in its own right. The time of Reagan also saw the emergence of a new form of entertainment. It was the video game which has given rise to virtual reality. In the 2030s, when we have a President like Jackson, Hayes, FDR, and Reagan, we will likely see virtual reality emerge as an art form in its own right.

  24. Nathan Fleischmanon 09 Apr 2016 at 3:36 pm

    Every time there is a major political change, exploration increases. During the time of Jackson, Joseph Reddeford Walker explored what is now the Southwestern United States, then part of Mexico. This led to the California Trail and the Gold Rush. During the time of Hayes, Henry Morton Stanley completed his exploration of Central Africa. This led to imperialism in Africa and the Congo Free State scandal. During the time of FDR, Admiral Richard Byrd explored Antarctica and nearly perished in one of his explorations. During the time of Reagan, the Space Shuttle program began. The Space Shuttle Challenger exploded in 1986, killing all on board. However, the Space Shuttle program continued. In the 2030s, we will likely see everyday people going into space, most likely to the Moon and Mars.

  25. Nathan Fleischmanon 15 May 2016 at 1:30 am

    During each major political change, corruption becomes a problem. During the time of Andrew Jackson, state governments faced major scandals related to economic development. This led to the elimination of mercantilism. During the reigns of Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur, the spoils system had led to major corruption scandals including Tammany Hall. This led to the Pendleton Civil Service Act in 1883. The Spoils System was completely eliminated. During the reign of FDR, the issue of corruption focused on cities like Chicago and Los Angeles. Al Capone was already in jail for tax evasion. With Prohibition out of the way, organized crime had found other revenues. This also involved bribing officials and extortion. Many corrupt city officials would end up going to jail for their crimes. During the time of Reagan, the issue of corruption focused Wall Street and its yuppie culture. My people involved in Wall Street would go to jail after the 1987 Wall Street crash. Police corruption was also a major issue. When we reach the 2030s, the issue of corruption most likely be focused on something. I do not know what.

  26. Nathan Fleischmanon 27 May 2016 at 4:38 pm

    One thing you probably notice after each Maslow Window and the war that follows is a stock market crash. After the first Maslow Window and the War of 1812, the creation of the Second Bank of the United States brought a lot of people investing in stocks. This led to a stock market crash in 1819. It took two years to recover. After the Second Maslow Window and the Civil War, there was an increase in stocks brought about by the railroad business. The investment went badly in 1873 when there was a stock market crash. John Rockefeller might be partly blamed because he introduced the pipeline concept, but the crash was inevitable. After the Third Maslow Window and World War I, there came the Roaring Twenties when people had penchant for spending. This, eventually, caused a lot of trouble leading to Black Tuesday in 1929 which triggered the Great Depression. After the fourth Maslow Window and the Vietnam War, during the Reagan years, there was an interest in the stock market not seen since the Roaring Twenties. This led to the 1987 Wall Street Crash which led to many yuppies going to jail. After the fifth Maslow Window and the war that follows, we will see something similar happen in the 2030s. This will likely lead to a stock market crash in 2041.

  27. Nathan Fleischmanon 16 Jun 2016 at 11:01 pm

    During a period of major political reform, music is often dominated by a different medium. During the time of Andrew Jackson as President, the dominant medium was the piano. People played for entertainment using a piano. In fact, Frederic Chopin focused primarily on piano compositions. During the time of Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur, the phonograph, invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison, was the dominant medium. Many composers hated it. However, it paved the way for the rise of popular music. During the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, radio was the dominant medium for music. The big bands performed their jazz music on the radio. Radio brought jazz and country music to the mainstream. During the Reagan era, the dominant medium for music was television. MTV was launched in 1981. It presented music videos. Michael Jackson was the biggest star on MTV. When the 2030s roll around, the Internet is going to be the dominant medium for music. That’s all I know that will happen in the future.

  28. Nathan Fleischmanon 11 Jul 2016 at 10:13 pm

    One thing you will notice during a period of major political reform is disease. During the Jacksonian period from 1829-1837, this was smallpox. Some discoveries were made that helped create an immunity to smallpox. During the periods when Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur were president, Louis Pasteur invented vaccination. Many more diseases which were common at the time were cured. At the same time, sanitation was increasingly seen as important. During the time of FDR, antibiotics went mainstream, starting with penicillin. this helped cure bacterial infections. During Reagan’s presidency, AIDS was the main issue. At the same time, smallpox was eliminated. Drugs and other things helped to make AIDS survivable. When the 2030s arrive, we will most likely deal with antibiotic-resistance and other issues.

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